Types of Risk in Project Management

The most common project risks are:

  • Cost risk, typically escalation of project costs due to poor cost estimating accuracy and scope creep.
  • Schedule risk, the risk that activities will take longer than expected. Slippages in schedule typically increase costs and, also, delay the receipt of project benefits, with a possible loss of competitive advantage.
  • Performance risk, the risk that the project will fail to produce results consistent with project specifications.

There are many other types of risks of concern to projects. These risks can result in cost, schedule, or performance problems and create other types of adverse consequences for the organization. For example:

  • Governance risk relates to board and management performance with regard to ethics, community stewardship, and company reputation.
  • Strategic risks result from errors in strategy, such as choosing a technology that can’t be made to work.
  • Operational risk includes risks from poor implementation and process problems such as procurement, production, and distribution.
  • Market risks include competition, foreign exchange, commodity markets, and interest rate risk, as well as liquidity and credit risks.
  • Legal risks arise from legal and regulatory obligations, including contract risks and litigation brought against the organization.
  • Risks associated with external hazards, including storms, floods, and earthquakes; vandalism, sabotage, and terrorism; labor strikes; and civil unrest.

As indicated by these examples, project risks include both internal risks associated with successfully completing each stage of the project, plus risks that are beyond the control of the project team. These latter types include external risks that arise from outside the organization but affect the ultimate value to be derived from the project. In all cases, the seriousness of the risk depends on the nature and magnitude of the possible end consequences and their probabilities.

In addition to project risk, project deferral risk can be important. Project deferral risk refers to the risks associated with failing to do a project. Like project risk, project deferral risk can arise from any of the bulleted risk sources listed above (the second list). Project deferral risk can also occur if there is only a limited window of opportunity for conducting a project—if the project is not conducted now, there may be a risk that it might never be possible to effectively do it later.

Oftentimes, external risks contribute more to portfolio risk because they impact multiple projects simultaneously. For example, a pharmaceutical company’s R&D project is affected by the uncertain outcomes surrounding the specific compound involved, however many projects could be impacted by a change in regulations. Similarly, a petroleum firm’s exploration project depends on uncertainty over whether oil is present at the given location, but uncertainties over the market price of oil affect many projects. Likewise, a construction company might have many projects threatened by the external risk of an increase in steel or commodity prices.

 

 

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2 Responses

  1. Avatar David Miller says:

    Change in the business strategies create huge potential risks in a project. Your blog is very informative and it has covered almost all the risks involved in project management. You must also add communication risk to your list as well. As it is a major risk factor where certain misconceptions may occur between team members due to communication gap. And the apt solution to mitigate all these risks is by using a project management tool. It can make your work much easier and resolve various issues faced while handling different projects. I am using ProProfs Project management software from a very long time for handling various projects. It really solved my problem and helped me in various ways. It is very simple yet effective tool with great features that will help you to manage different projects easily while mitigating different risks. And I find your article a gem as it helped me to discover various risk factors involved in a project management that I am not aware of.

    Thanks for a lovely post and keep sharing valuable information.

  2. Avatar Margaret Ikongo says:

    thank you all for the useful input

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